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Tumors

  • This handout discusses some of the more common forms of oral tumors in pets. Highlighted are Papillomas (“Warts”) and Fibropapillomas, both of wish are caused by viral infection. Clinical signs, diagnostic methods, and treatment options are highlighted.

  • Osteosarcomas are somewhat rare in cats and progress slowly. Osteosarcoma is very painful. The most common location where osteosarcomas develop in cats is the hindlimb. Amputation is by far the most common treatment. Chemotherapy is not generally pursued without evidence of metastasis, given the relatively long-term control with surgery alone.

  • Osteosarcoma, or bone cancer, is common in large breed dogs and is very aggressive, with upwards of 90-95% of patients having micrometastasis. Osteosarcoma is very painful. Lameness or a distinct swelling may be noted. Amputation is by far the most common treatment with chemotherapy following surgery. Radiation therapy may also be an option.

  • Rarely, ovarian tissue can be left behind when a dog is spayed. This leads to the ongoing secretion of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone that can result in a dog continuing to have a heat cycle. Ovarian remnants are difficult to diagnose, but vaginal cytology combined with hormone testing can be used to confirm the presence of functional ovarian tissue. Surgical treatment is typically recommended to prevent other health conditions from developing.

  • Ovarian tumors are quite rare in North American pets, mainly due to routine spaying practices. Several types of tumors can arise from the tissues of the ovary. How the tumor will affect your pet is entirely dependent on the location and type of tumor. By far, ovarian cancer is most commonly diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound or during a spay procedure. Full staging is recommended prior to surgery to determine if the cancer has metastasized. Treatment for solitary masses without evidence of spread typically involves ovariohysterectomy. If metastasis is present, chemotherapy should be considered, however its efficacy is not completely known. Without evidence of spread, ovarian tumors carry a good prognosis.

  • Primary pancreatic tumors are rare in dogs and cats. Exocrine tumors include adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and endocrine tumors include insulinomas, gastrinomas, and glucagonomas. Insulinomas are the most common type of pancreatic tumor, followed by adenocarcinomas. Both tumors are more common in dogs than cats. Large breed dogs and Siamese cats may be predisposed. Insulinomas are usually diagnosed with the finding of hypoglycemia with normal to high insulin on bloodwork and concomitant clinical signs. Adenocarcinomas typically go undetected until the clinical signs of metastasis are evident. For both tumors, diagnostic imaging and exploratory surgery with tumor removal (or biopsy) and histopathology are needed for a definitive diagnosis. Insulinomas can be treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery is possible with adenocarcinomas, but as the cancer is more diffuse and has usually metastasized by the time of diagnosis, the prognosis is poorer. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are ineffective in the treatment of adenocarcinomas. Given the high rate of metastasis with these tumors, staging is recommended prior to surgery.

  • Parathyroid tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats. Benign adenomas occur more often than malignant tumors. Keeshonds appear to have a genetic predisposition to developing parathyroid tumors, however no breed or genetic relationship has been established in cats. Pets may exhibit signs of lethargy, little or no appetite, vomiting, and muscle twitching. Diagnosis is confirmed with PTH testing and ultrasound of the neck region after hypercalcemia is observed on bloodwork. Surgery to remove the affect gland(s) is the typical treatment, however ultrasound-guided ablation may be pursued. Careful monitoring of calcium levels post-surgery is important, as some pets may develop a transient hypocalcemia and require calcium supplementation. Prognosis is excellent, and the metastatic rate for these tumors is extremely low.

  • Pituitary macroadenomas are large tumors of the pituitary gland that are either functional (secrete hormones) or non-functional (do not secrete hormones). The clinical signs depend on the type of macroadenoma, though become severe over time in either case. Diagnosis requires specialized CT or MRI imaging. This handout explains the effects of macroadenomas in cats and the treatment options available.

  • Pituitary macroadenomas are large tumors of the pituitary gland that are either functional (secrete hormones) or non-functional (do not secrete hormones). The most common functional pituitary macroadenoma in the dog secretes the hormone ACTH, causing increased cortisol levels and Cushing’s disease. Non-functional macroadenomas cause clinical signs through compression of nearby structures resulting in vision changes, diabetes insipidus, and neurologic disorders. This handout explains the effects of these tumors on dogs, how they are diagnosed, and the treatment options available.

  • Clinical signs of pituitary tumors depend on whether the tumor is functional or nonfunctional. Functional tumors can cause Cushing’s disease in dogs, and both acromegaly and insulin-resistant diabetes in cats. Nonfunctional pituitary tumors can enlarge to cause neurological signs. Diagnosis may be based on the history, bloodwork, urinalysis, and sometimes a CT scan or MRI. Medical therapy is often the treatment of choice for functional tumors. Radiation therapy is another option and is usually the primary treatment for nonfunctional tumors.

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